Progressive web apps (PWA): The future of web applications


    In the digital age, where mobility and accessibility are key criteria for the success of web applications, progressive web applications (PWA) emerge as a fascinating solution combining the best features of traditional websites and native mobile web apps. PWA, being a combination of advanced web technologies and innovative design approaches, respond to changing user expectations and the growing challenges faced by application developers.

    In this article, we will take a closer look at the world of PWA apps. We will learn exactly what PWAs are, what benefits they bring, how they work, and when to consider their use. We will also look at the impact of Progressive Web Apps on performance optimization and search engine optimization and learn about the best practices for developing these applications. There will also be examples of companies that have succeeded thanks to the use of PWA, and tips on the future of PWA apps and challenges facing this fascinating technology.

    Read More: PWA vs Cross-Platform Apps

    What are Progressive Web Applications (PWA)?

    Progressive Web Applications (PWA) are modern web solutions that combine the features of traditional websites and native mobile apps. They are usually created using standard web technologies, such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which allows for access through web browsers on various platforms and devices.

    What distinguishes PWA from other forms of applications? A key feature of PWA is their ability to work both online and offline. This means that users can use these applications even when they do not have internet access, which is a significant step towards improving accessibility and usability.

    Additionally, PWAs offer faster loading times than traditional websites and are often more responsive, translating into better user experience (UX). Thanks to content caching mechanisms, PWAs can also reduce mobile data usage, which is important for users on limited data plans.

    If you want to learn more about how to use fast loading times for example in online sales, it's worth reading the article titled "PWA with Next.js in e-commerce: Discover the power of PWA in online sales".

    Benefits for Users

    Progressive Web Applications offer a range of benefits for users:

    1. Offline Accessibility: One of the key advantages of PWA is the ability to operate in offline mode. This means that users can use the application even in places where there is no internet access, which is particularly useful when traveling or in areas with weak coverage.
    2. Loading Speed: PWAs are characterized by faster loading times compared to traditional websites. Thanks to content caching mechanisms, content is ready to be displayed immediately after launching the application.
    3. Responsiveness: PWAs are usually optimized for different devices and screen sizes. This ensures consistent and responsive user experiences, regardless of the device used.
    4. No Need to Download: Unlike native mobile apps, PWAs do not require downloading and installing from the App Store or Google Play. Users can use them immediately by simply visiting the relevant website.

    Benefits for Application Developers

    Application developers also benefit from using PWA technology:

    1. Common Code Base: PWAs are created using standard web technologies, which means that a common code base can be used to serve different platforms, including web browsers and operating systems.
    2. Reduced Costs: Compared to native web application development, creating and maintaining PWAs can be cheaper and more efficient, as it does not require specialized tools and resources.
    3. Faster Time to Market: PWAs are not subject to app store approval processes, which means they can be brought to market much faster than native apps.
    4. Easier Updates: Updates to PWAs can be made immediately on the server side, without waiting for acceptance from app stores, allowing for ongoing changes and bug fixes.

    How Do Progressive Web Applications Work?

    Progressive Web Applications combine the best features of websites and native mobile apps. This allows users to enjoy advanced functionalities, similar to native apps, while maintaining accessibility through a web browser. PWAs achieve this through several key mechanisms and technologies:

    1. Service Worker: This is one of the key technologies enabling PWA offline operation. A Service Worker is a JavaScript script that runs in the background and handles network requests. It allows for caching of application content, meaning users can use it even in offline mode. When the device regains internet access, the Service Worker automatically synchronizes data.
    2. Application Manifest: The manifest is a JSON file containing application metadata, such as name, icon, description, and other information. It allows you to install PWA on the device's home screen and get the feeling of using a native app.
    3. App Shell: App Shell is the template structure of the application that is cached and loaded first, giving the user an immediate sense of responsiveness. This allows for faster loading of content and interaction.
    4. HTTPS: All PWAs must be delivered via a secure HTTPS connection. This is important for the security of user data and is one of the requirements of Progressive Web App.
    5. Web App Manifest: Web

    App Manifest is a JSON format configuration file that provides information about the application, such as its name, icon, colors, or screen orientation. It allows you to define the appearance and behavior of PWA on users' devices.

    It's also worth comparing Cross-Platform Apps with PWA - they function similarly, but are technologically very different.

    Technologies Used in PWA

    Creating Progressive Web Applications is possible thanks to the use of a range of web technologies, including:

    • HTML5: New HTML5 elements allow for more advanced document structures and interactions.
    • CSS3: CSS3 can be used to customize the appearance and animations of the application.
    • JavaScript: It is used to program the behavior of the application, handle user interactions, and implement the Service Worker.
    • Service Worker API: Allows for controlling the Service Worker and managing caching and network requests.
    • IndexedDB: A browser database that enables offline data storage.
    • Web App Manifest: Defines application properties such as icon, colors, and screen orientation.

    Advantages of Progressive Web Applications

    Now that we understand how Progressive Web Applications work and what technologies are used to build them, let's move on to analyzing the advantages that contribute to the popularity of PWAs:

    1. Offline Accessibility: One of the main advantages of PWAs is the ability to use them even in offline mode. Thanks to the Service Workers, these applications can cache content and provide users with continuous access to content, even when there is no internet connection. The offline capabilities are particularly useful in places with unstable connections.
    2. Speed and Responsiveness: PWAs are much faster than traditional websites. Thanks to the App Shell and content caching, users experience immediate responsiveness, which increases satisfaction with using the application.
    3. Independence from App Stores: Native mobile apps have to be placed in app stores (App Store, Google Play), which involves limitations and the need for acceptance from the platform. PWAs can be installed directly from the browser, eliminating the need to go through the app approval process.
    4. Low Development and Maintenance Costs: Creating PWAs is often cheaper than developing separate versions for different platforms (iOS, Android). Moreover, maintaining a single common version of the application is more economical.
    5. Updates Without Data Loss: Updates to PWAs are more flexible. Users do not lose data or have to download updates from the App Store or Google Play. Everything happens automatically, which is convenient for both developers and users.
    6. High Conversion: Thanks to the ability to install PWAs on the device's home screen and a more native experience, user conversions from browsers to applications are significantly higher.
    7. Support for Multiple Platforms: Progressive Web Applications work on different platforms and devices, making them universal and easily accessible to different user groups.
    8. SEO Optimization: PWAs have better support for SEO than traditional websites. This makes them more visible in search results, increasing their reach.
    9. Data Security: Due to the requirement to use the HTTPS protocol and control over the Service Worker, PWAs are relatively secure in terms of protecting user data.

    It is worth noting that the advantages of PWAs can be particularly beneficial for small and medium-sized enterprises and startups, which can gain competitiveness and savings thanks to this technology.

    Disadvantages of Progressive Web Applications

    Like any technology, Progressive Web Applications (PWA) have their limitations and drawbacks. Understanding these issues is important to accurately assess whether PWAs are right for your project. Here are some of the main drawbacks:

    1. Lack of Full Functionality: PWAs may not offer all the advanced features available in native mobile apps. If your application requires specific features, such as access to the camera or device sensors, PWAs may not meet these requirements.
    2. Browser Dependency: PWAs are dependent on web browsers. If the user is using an outdated browser or one not supported by PWA, they may encounter performance and functionality problems.
    3. Limitations on iOS: Although PWAs are versatile, they have certain limitations on Apple (iOS) devices. Installing PWA on the iOS home screen is more hidden, and there may be some lack of support for features such as notifications.
    4. Increased Battery Consumption: In some cases, PWAs may consume more energy and resources than native apps, which can affect the battery life of the device.
    5. Need for Internet Access: Although PWAs offer offline mode, many of their functions still require internet access. This can be a limitation for users with unstable connections.
    6. Security: While PWAs offer some levels of security, they are still more vulnerable to certain types of attacks than native apps, which can be a problem in areas requiring special security.
    7. Application Size: PWAs tend to increase in size as features and content are added. This can lead to longer loading times and use of space on the

    device. 8. Lack of Support for Older Systems: Older devices and operating systems may not offer full support for PWAs, which may make these applications inaccessible to all users. 9. Lack of App Store: The absence in app stores (App Store, Google Play) can affect the visibility and dissemination of PWAs, especially if users are unaware that such applications exist.

    Despite these drawbacks, Progressive Web Applications still have many advantages and are an attractive solution for many projects.

    Examples of Progressive Web Applications

    To better understand the PWA benefits that can come from using Progressive Web Applications (PWAs), it's worth looking at some specific examples of their application. Below are examples of industries and companies that have successfully implemented PWA:

    1. Twitter Lite: Twitter created a version of its application called "Twitter Lite" based on PWA. This is a much smaller version of the Twitter application that runs much faster than the traditional mobile app. Twitter Lite offers features such as push notifications, offline mode, and fast loading, with minimal data usage.
    2. Pinterest: Pinterest also implemented PWA, which significantly increased user engagement on the platform. Thanks to PWA, Pinterest users can browse and save photos even with a weak internet connection.
    3. Starbucks: Starbucks created a PWA that allows users to view the menu, place orders, and pay for coffee. The application works both online and offline, which is particularly useful for orders before arriving at the café.
    4. The Washington Post: The popular newspaper "The Washington Post" created a PWA that allows readers to browse news and articles in offline mode, as well as receive push notifications about the latest news.
    5. Uber: Uber introduced a PWA that is more accessible to users in regions with poor internet access. Thanks to PWA, users can order rides even with low-quality connections.
    6. Forbes: Forbes created a PWA that improved the reading experience on their website. Thanks to PWA, Forbes increased page views and time spent on the site.

    These examples show the diversity of industries and applications of Progressive Web Applications. It is worth noting that PWAs can be beneficial not only for large companies but also for small businesses and startups that want to offer their customers better mobile experiences.

    Impact of PWA on Performance and SEO

    Progressive Web Applications (PWA) have a significant impact on performance and search engine optimization. Here's how PWA affects these key aspects:

    • Page Loading Speed: One of the main advantages of PWA is their loading speed. Thanks to precise resource management and the ability to store content offline, PWAs can deliver content to users immediately after launching the application. This not only improves the user experience but also affects performance, as PWA pages load faster even on weak internet connections.
    • SEO Optimization: Search engines prefer pages that load quickly and completely. Thanks to the efficiency of PWA and the ability of Google bots to index their content, PWAs have an advantage in terms of positioning in search results. Content in PWAs can be indexed even in offline conditions, improving visibility in search results.
    • Benefits associated with easier positioning in search results: Progressive Web Applications are more accessible to search engines than traditional mobile applications. This means that content in PWAs can be more effectively indexed, which translates into a higher position in search results. This allows companies to achieve greater visibility online and reach a wider audience.

    Case Studies and Success Stories

    People in a modern digital landscape are highly demanding, and they want quick solutions to pretty much everything. This is where PWA or Progressive Web Applications step in because they offer the right solution for the customers.

    But if you are a startup company, you might wonder if spending the money to build such apps would be worth the risk. In that case, here are some of the case studies and success stories to keep you motivated.


    Twitter has about 410 million monthly active users worldwide, and more than 80% of them use this application on mobile. However, users would often experience slow loading due to poor internet connection and mobile storage issues.

    So, to access the web app more easily and eliminate storage problems, Twitter has built a PWA app using modern websites and native features. That’s how Twitter Lite was launched, and here is the result:

    • The app claims only 3% of what other versions claimed of the storage (the Android and iOS app sizes were 23.5 MB and 116.5 MB accordingly, the PWA size is only 600 KB).
    • 250,000 daily user engagement.
    • Tweets sent increased by 75%.
    • Bounce rate dropped by 20%.
    • Page sessions increased by 65%.


    We already know AliExpress is a giant and successful e-commerce business. However, despite the big investments, the company faced trouble convincing its users to download the mobile app and re-engage with the entire thing. At one point, they adapted the PWA development. And not after waiting too long, here is what happened.

    • The time spent per session increased by 74%,
    • The number of pages visited during each session doubled.
    • Add to Homescreen an increased interaction rate of 4x.


    After seeing a significant increase in mobile app users over the years, Trivago, a reputed travel and hotel search engine, decided to create a mobile app. However, the company felt conflicted, wondering whether users would want to move to an app, especially when internet connection can be a concern during travel. Nevertheless, Trivago built a Progressive Web App to ensure the right experience for the users, and the result was astounding.

    • 150% of people added Trivago to their mobile home screen.
    • Click-throughs to the hotels increased by around 97%.
    • The mobile web app is available in 33 languages and 55 countries.


    Even though it was a popular website, Pinterest noticed only 1% of the total users would sign up, log in regularly, and install the native app. On top of that, the old app was slow and the company had eyes on international users. So, for 3 months, the company invested in PWA to redevelop their app, and it witnessed a game-changing result.

    • Time spent on Pinterest used by 40% compared to the old native app.
    • User-generated ad revenue increased by 44%.
    • Core engagement increased by more than 60%.


    Progressive Web Applications (PWA) represent the future of web apps. With their speed, responsiveness, offline accessibility, and SEO optimization, PWAs offer numerous benefits for both users and businesses. Optimizing the site for performance and adapting to changing web technologies make PWA an attractive solution for application developers.

    As this technology develops, we can expect increasingly advanced and versatile Progressive Web Applications that will change the way we use the internet.

    FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

    How does PWA differ from traditional mobile applications?

    • PWA are web applications that can be installed and run on mobile devices, similar to traditional mobile apps. However, PWAs have certain advantages, such as lower data usage, loading speed, and offline accessibility.

    What benefits do PWAs bring to businesses?

    • PWAs can improve performance and SEO optimization, which translates into better visibility in search results. Additionally, PWAs are more accessible to users and require lower investments for PWA development and maintenance.

    Are PWAs compatible with different browsers?

    • Modern browsers increasingly support PWAs, but there are still some differences in browser compatibility. It's important to test and adapt PWAs to different browsers and devices.

    Can PWAs operate offline?

    • Yes, PWAs can operate in offline mode, allowing users to access certain content and features even without an internet connection.

    What are the most important practices for creating PWAs?

    • The most important practices for creating PWAs include responsive web design, minimizing data usage, ensuring security, fast loading, offline access, and monitoring and analyzing user behavior.
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